There are primarily two actors defined in IR , state and non state actors. My argument is for addition of two more “rational $ fundamental” actors. It is initiation of debate for wider input and detailed discussion.
The concept of global affairs revolve around states and with in states, it is state actors which have the primary role to decide on issues and distribution of resources. State actors have formal backing of a sovereign state to carry out their desired actions. On the other hand, Robert Longley states in his article published on 28July 2022 in thoughtco.com states that
“corporations, private financial institutions, NGOs,and armed resistance groups, terrorists groups , public, media, private business entities are all categorized as non state actors.
Individual business magnates, such Elon Musk, Bill Gates, hundreds of others may be considered NSAs to the extent that they use their great wealth in seeking to influence national and international affairs.
Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) that operate according to rules encoded as computer database programs called smart contracts or blockchains. The crypto-currency Bitcoin is an example of a DAO which since its invention in 2009 has grown to become economically influential worldwide.
International media conglomerates, which are also usually corporations, report on the social and political situation in countries worldwide, and may therefore be highly influential as NSAs”.
Is it a joke? Are we defining it correctly.
It is fundamentally a flawed categorization. A handful of
of public is state actor which we call government, its employees. All corporations, organizations, unions, media houses, education institutions are issued permission by government to carry out their activities, hence they are legal and rationale actors.
Non state actors are only those outfits which operate beyond legal domain.
Thus legal entities should be categorized ” rationale actors” and those not permitted by UN, government or proscribed be called ” non-state actors”.
Where do then public fits it? The whole purpose of state is looking after the interest of public and this group is not categorized any where. According to Noam Chomsky, they are bewildered herds.
IMF is non- government organisation and same is World Bank. The irony is Non Government Organizations ( IMF & World) are dictating terms to states and state actors.
It is clash of liberalism and realism. Liberalism included international institutions in global affairs to maximize the benefit to state and avoid conflicts. Realism has kept state as basic unit of global affairs but using international institutions for maximizing interest of bigger states.
Primarily it is politics of leverages which has taken over the global and national affairs. Leverage over international institutions, leverage over governments and leverage over non state actors to maximize its power.
Thus according to Foucault’s understanding, “power is based on knowledge and makes use of knowledge; on the other hand, power reproduces knowledge by shaping it in accordance with its anonymous intentions. Power creates and recreates its own fields of exercise through knowledge”.
The population of a state are
“Fundamental Actors” of a stat. They actually decide the state actors. They may not be decision making actors in day to day running of government but they are biggest decision making entity in political system.